Bulwark Intelligence



In the expansive tapestry of Nigeria’s geographical landscape, the intricate network of waterways, meandering over 8,000 kilometres (about 4970.97 mi) of rivers and coastlines, stands as a crucial conduit for the nation’s vibrant economy and diverse population. This, however, has metamorphosed into a wellspring of deep concern due to the surge in boat capsizing incidents. Examining this problem requires peeling back the layers to reveal the multifaceted factors contributing to this alarming rise. The uptick speaks not only to the inherent dangers faced by those navigating Nigeria’s waterways but also to systemic inadequacies in the safeguards meant to ensure the safety of passengers and crew.

States like Kwara, Kogi, Niger, Adamawa, Kebbi, Sokoto, and Kano have witnessed a high rate of boat mishaps in recent times. Niger State has recorded over 10 boat incidents this year alone. The recent heart-wrenching tragedy in Niger State, where a boat, burdened with over 100 passengers, succumbed to the unforgiving waters, leaving dozens dead, once again thrust the matter of safety standards in Nigerian waters into the limelight. The incident, amongst others, necessitates a comprehensive exploration of the systemic issues contributing to this worrisome trend. It prompts questions about the efficacy of existing safety regulations, the enforcement mechanisms, and the resilience of the vessels navigating the nation’s waterways.

Likely Causes

An analysis of data furnished by the National Inland Waterways Authority (NIWA) reveals that since the start of 2023, over 260 Nigerians have died in various boat mishaps across the nation’s inland waterways. These troubling incidents, as elucidated by experts, could be linked to an array of factors including overloading, overspeeding, and pervasive non-compliance with established safety regulations.


One of the most common causes of boat capsizing incidents is overloading. Boat operators, driven by the pressure to maximise profits, often cram more passengers and cargo onto their vessels than they are safely designed to carry. This destabilizes the boats, making them more susceptible to capsizing, especially in rough waters.


Another major contributing factor is overspeeding. Boat operators, eager to meet tight schedules or simply seeking a thrill, often disregard speed limits, particularly in calmer waters. This reckless behaviour increases the risk of collisions with other boats or submerged objects, which can easily lead to capsizing.

Lax Enforcement and Inadequate Safety Regulations

The lack of strict enforcement of safety regulations further exacerbates the problem. NIWA, the agency responsible for regulating inland waterway transportation, faces challenges in effectively monitoring and enforcing safety standards across the vast network of waterways. Additionally, the existing safety regulations are often outdated and inadequate, failing to address the evolving nature of boat operations and the increasing complexity of waterways.

Notable cases of boat capsize incidents in Nigeria

A few of the incidents reported this year include;

14 June 2023- A boat capsized between Ebu and Dzakan village in Patigi local government area of Kwara state loaded with about 250 passengers out of which 106 people died.

9 September 2023- 10 persons died after a boat capsized on the Njuwa Lake, Rugange village, in the Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State. On 11 September, another boat accident claimed 11 lives in Gurin village in Fufore Local Government Area of the State.

2 October 2023- A boat carrying 50 people capsized in Yauri Local Government, Kebbi State with 40 passengers unaccounted for.

28 October 2023- A boat conveying 80 passengers capsized in Karim Lamido Local Government Area of Taraba, resulting in the death of 15 passengers.

Addressing the Safety Imperative

To combat the rising tide of boat capsizing incidents, a comprehensive approach is needed. These include

  • Strict Enforcement of Safety Regulations: NIWA must be empowered with the resources and authority to effectively enforce safety regulations, including regular inspections, penalties for non-compliance, and the impounding of unsafe vessels. Existing safety regulations should be reviewed and updated to reflect the latest safety standards and address emerging challenges in boat operations.
  • Enhanced Safety Awareness: Public awareness campaigns should be conducted to educate boat operators and passengers about safety precautions, such as proper loading practices, safe operating speeds, and the importance of using life jackets. Efforts should be made to promote the use of safer boat designs and construction materials, particularly for vessels operating in challenging waterways.
  • Investing in Rescue Infrastructure: Adequate rescue infrastructure, including well-equipped rescue boats and trained personnel, should be readily available in strategic locations along waterways to swiftly respond to emergencies.

The growing pattern of boat tragedies serves as a stark reminder of the urgent need to address safety concerns on Nigeria’s waterways. By implementing a holistic approach that addresses overloading, overspeeding, lax enforcement, and inadequate safety regulations, we can work towards a future where the waterways that sustain Nigeria’s economy and connect its communities are also safe and reliable.


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