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security analysis

CURATED OSINT, Nigeria, Reports, security analysis, SECURITY THREATS


Armed robbery is the most predominant violent crime across the country including the South Western part of Nigeria. Ogun State which houses most of the higher institutions in Nigeria, has recorded a high robbery incident rate, precisely in Remo North and Ijebu-Ode Local Government Areas. At least four attacks have been recorded in these locations, a precedent which has triggered protests by some student populace. Students, who reside in hostels distant from the main school campus, with limited access to equipped security personnel have often been primary targets of these attacks in recent times. Factors such as low-level employment rate, socio-economic disparities, drug abuse, and cultism as well as the proliferation of arms, mostly locally made Small Arms Fire (SAFs), have increased the risk of robbery attacks in student communities. In Remo-North for example, students were victims of attacks at least three times between December 2023 and January 2024. MODUS OPERANDI The assailants attack students’ hostels at midnight, mostly between 2300-0200 hrs, to reduce detection of their movements. By breaking down doors or windows, the attackers gain access to their victims’ rooms, scaring them with guns to command cooperation. Reports on open sources have also revealed that those who refuse to cooperate are assaulted and injured, and in extreme situations, killed, as was recorded on 2nd December 2023, in Sapaade, Remo North LGA. NOTABLE ROBBERY ATTACKS Between December 2022 to January 2024, at least twenty incidents of armed robbery were documented in Ogun State, with a high rate of casualty and loss of valuables worth millions of naira during the attacks. On 24 October 2023, armed individuals attacked the female private hostels of the Tai Solarin University of Education in the Ijagun village in the Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of the State and sexually assaulted at least four female students, while valuables including cash, laptops, and phones were stolen. Further information shows that an undisclosed number of students were injured during the assault. On 2nd December 2023, incidents were documented in the Ode-Ipara and Isara communities in the Remo-North Local Government Area of the State. A student was killed, while nine others were wounded after the assailants fired gunshots during the attack. It was stated that this attack occurred four days after students protested recurrent attacks in their community. The school was reportedly closed down for two weeks following the incessant armed robbery attacks on the students. IMPACTS ON STUDENTS Robberies have profound and detrimental effects on students.  Beyond the immediate loss of the student’s valuables, the psychological impact can be severe, leading to increased stress, anxiety, and a sense of vulnerability. The emotional toll may affect academic performance, disrupting focus and concentration. Students may also experience a decline in overall well-being, as feelings of insecurity persist. In some cases, financial strain arises from replacing stolen items, adding additional burdens. GOVERNMENT SECURITY RESPONSE The Public Relations Officer, SP Omolola Odutola, in a statement on 28th November 2023, announced the arrest of three suspected robbers involved in the attacks on the students. In another raid, five suspected robbers were arrested at the Oke Itoku area of Abeokuta. Two stolen vehicles were also recovered from the suspects. He further opined that a proactive operation was conducted based on intelligence, following a security meeting organized by the Commissioner of Police, CP Alamutu Abiodun Mustapha, in response to the shooting incidents at the Gateway Polytechnic. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SCHOOL AUTHORITIES Threats in institutions of learning have lingered for years, therefore, it is expedient for schools’ management to collaborate with security operatives to enhance security presence in student residencies. Another recommendation is for schools to establish clear communication channels for students to report any suspicious activities. Addressing the issue involves not only enhancing security measures but also providing adequate support services such as counseling to help students cope with the aftermath of such incidents. SECURITY AWARENESS, CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STUDENTS Ensure proper verification of locations before renting an accommodation. Report suspicious movements around the residence to the appropriate authorities. Remain vigilant. Avoid distractions like texting or wearing headphones that can make you less aware of your surroundings. Students are advised to walk in groups especially at night or in unfamiliar areas whenever possible. Don’t leave valuable items, such as laptops, smartphones, or cash, in plain sight. Avoid late-night movement. Exercise caution, and if caught off guard, stay calm and avoid struggling with assailants.     Featured Image Source: CC. TAUSED Website

CURATED OSINT, Nigeria, Reports, security analysis, SECURITY THREATS


Plateau State, over the years, has been a hotspot for ethnic-religious conflicts due to various religious and cultural identities. These conflicts result from societal imbalances between groups like the Berom farming localities and Fulani herders. Territorial possessions in this fertile zone emerged as conflict grounds driving rivalry among locals. Various ethnic groups, consisting of Berom, Fulani, and Hausa largely fraternised under religious groupings majorly Christianity and Islam. Ethno-religious Dynamics The majority of the violence recorded in the state is mostly attributed to either religious or ethnic dimensions and at times a combination of both This includes recurrent attacks between groups leaving hundreds displaced. Conflicts over resources such as land and water fueled by perceptions of marginalization and the quest for power and control have exacerbated these issues. The turning point was the massive violence in the state capital Jos in September 2001 (commonly referred to as the Jos crisis) which claimed around 1,000 lives.  Challenges Associated with the Violence Identifying the perpetrators of the attacks poses one of the most challenging obstacles in addressing the violence. Currently, there are no established groups or militias with a recognized organizational structure. No individual or entity has come forward to openly claim responsibility for the violence. While various organizations representing diverse political, economic, and social interests exist across the state, they do not publicly endorse or advocate violence. The Christmas Eve massacre of 2023 in Bokkos and Mangu attests to the conflict’s enduring brutality. During the attack, more than 160 Villages (44 in Bokkos, 11 in Barkin Ladi and 109 in Mangu LGA respectively) were overrun by unknown attackers, resulting in over 409 houses burnt down, 335 deaths, 171 injured with an estimated 18,275 people fleeing from their homes to seek refuge in other parts of the state and neighbouring environs. Way Forward To tackle the challenges arising from ethnic and religious differences in Plateau State, it is important to adopt a comprehensive approach. This includes facilitating dialogue among diverse groups, promoting mutual respect for different backgrounds, and effectively resolving conflicts. Furthermore, it is crucial to ensure equal opportunities for all citizens, improve governance, and promote inclusive growth. Guidance from religious and community leaders, along with support from advocacy groups committed to the well-being of the community, plays a pivotal role in establishing trust, promoting tolerance, and cultivating a peaceful atmosphere. Joint initiatives that bring together government agencies and civil society organizations are essential for creating a setting conducive to open dialogue, mutual understanding, and reconciliation.

CURATED OSINT, Nigeria, Reports, security analysis, SECURITY THREATS, TERRORISM


Ochlocracy: Government by a mob! Jungle Justice is an ochlocracy where a mob decides to be the judge, jury, and executioner of an accused (whether legitimately or falsely). In May 2022 alone: 2 May: Two suspected robbers were set ablaze in Makurdi, Benue State. 3 May: One suspected robber was set ablaze along Owerri-Orlu road in Owerri North, Imo State. 11 May: Two suspected phone thieves were set ablaze around Cele Bus stop in Lagos state when they were found with 18 phones. 11 May: A female student of Shehu Shagari College of Education was killed and set ablaze after being accused of blasphemy in Sokoto State. 12 May: A sound engineer was killed and set ablaze by commercial motorcycle riders (okada), over a minor cost dispute, in the Lekki area of Lagos State. On the surface, it may seem satisfying to know that quick justice is being served especially in a country where minor disputes could take up to five years in a criminal court of law- if it gets resolved at all. However, jungle justice has been single-handedly responsible for the false accusation, injury, and death of many innocent Nigerians and few falsely accused victims are alive to recount their ordeal. Take the story of Saminu Ibrahim who went to the bank to withdraw money, when one of the bank staff suddenly got hysterical and claimed his penis had vanished. Within a split second, the crowd had gathered, taking the accuser’s word as final and were ready to pounce on Saminu, when some policemen showed up and intervened. A similar incident occurred when Olabiyi Olayemi was falsely accused of theft when he was trying to tow a vehicle which he thought was his boss’s. The vehicle was the same colour, make and model as the one he was looking for. Unbeknownst to him, the correct vehicle was parked on the next street. Once the tow truck began the process of evacuating the vehicle, a crowd gathered around and accused him of theft. In a flash, he was beaten, a tire was thrown around his neck and had been doused with petrol. A man with the matchbox was about to strike it when the police shot in the air to disperse the crowd. Further investigation revealed it was a case of mistaken identity. There are many more stories like these which help explain why jungle justice must never be supported or condoned. The fact that one false accusation can, in a split second, lead to a life being taken forever, should remain a stark reminder that everything about jungle justice is unjust. ​_ Click here to view Tableau dashboard No Justice, No Peace The lack of trust in the Nigerian judicial system is what has fuelled mob attacks and jungle justice. Much of the insecurity in Nigeria is a direct result of the inefficient and ineffective judicial system. Banditry is a symptom of the same judicial system problems. Take for example the story of Turji Bello, one of the most feared bandits operating in North-West Nigeria, who in a recent interview explained his deep-rooted motivation for going into that line of business. Turji stated: Over a thousand cattle were taken away from us. On that day, six of our little siblings were killed. Our parents went through all the courts, but they couldn’t get back their cattle. They also connived with Yan Sakai (local vigilante) and slaughtered my uncle. Where does a commoner seek redress? … my father was involved in a court case for seven years over corn stalks. Just for corn stalks! And he went through all the courts including the one in Abuja… I swear to Allah that in our household we had over 100 cows, but we were left with just 20. You can confirm all that I have told you from the traditional rulers. I can bring the defendant (in my father’s court case); the case dragged on for years, since I was small and lasted till my adulthood. There is also nowhere that our parents did not go to get justice over the confiscation of our lands. All these are known to the Emir of Shinkafi. He knew our parents for years and they were not bandits. There was never a case of rustling reported to him. But they rustled our cows and killed our brothers and rendered us worthless. There is no authority to complain to, no one to seek redress from. Would you forever be crying? You will get tired of crying and seek for solution. And this is our problem in this country. Little Turji saw his father patiently seek justice through the courts, to no avail. As a young man, he directly witnessed discrimination, humiliation, attacks, and loss of loved ones, with no justice, meted out to perpetrators. Finally, young adult Turji decided within himself, to hell with the courts, if we want justice, we have to get it for ourselves. He and his group sourced weapons through Nigeria’s practically non-existent borders, they armed themselves to ensure their jungle justice. They began attacking innocent civilians, kidnapping, torturing, raping, maiming, killing, and burning people and villages. The banditry epidemic Nigeria is currently experiencing is what happens when justice is not served, and conflicts are not resolved. Citizens take the law into their own hands until they morph into terrorist groups. Solutions Nigeria’s constitution under sections 33, 34 and 36 has a lot to say about fundamental rights, including the right to life, the right to human dignity, and the right to a fair hearing. But when the constitution is not upheld, citizens will take matters into their own hands. The bandits ravaging the Northwest certainly did and exasperated citizens across the land from Lagos, to Sokoto, are equally doing the same. If people could trust that when they have a dispute, they could easily and quickly lodge their complaints, get a fair hearing and a fair resolution, most would go that route. But the current justice model does not provide for this. Justice sector reform  One of the major challenges in the justice sector is

security analysis, SECURITY THREATS

Best Practices To Secure Places Of Worship Against Active Shooters

Introduction The age-long reverence for places of worship and religious leaders is increasingly eroding around the world. The unprecedented security threats to places of worship are diverse and alarming. They include: terrorist attacks, kidnapping of religious leaders and congregants, theft of relics and offerings, arson active shooter incidents, among others. Here are procedural recommendations that will help strengthen the security, safety of lives and properties in a place of worship; Watch and Pray!  Vigilance should be our watchword while within and outside a place of worship. Many places of worship (churches, mosques) etc. out there seem to have very lax security/safety, emergency preparedness plans.  Granted God protects but we have to play our part of the bargain. Establishment of a Functional Security Department/Committee The security department should consist of members of the congregation that have security background/experience and headed by a Security manager. Members of the security department are expected to undergo periodic security and first responder training/re-training and also have knowledge of basic first aid. A security consultant can be retained and private security operatives hired if need be. It is also important to have the contact details of security agencies within the locality. A Detailed Security Policy/Plan A security policy is a continuously updated template that figures out, outlines how the organization plans to protect its people and properties. A typical security policy should include specifics such as: procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of the security policy to ensure that necessary corrections will be effected; stipulates who is authorized to talk to the Press/Police in the event of an incident, that under-aged children will be released ONLY to their parents or an authorized adult after service and so on and so forth. Security Awareness Training The security department will do well to organize periodic security awareness training, seminar, or briefings for members of the congregation. These training’s should include comprehensive emergency (fire, terrorism/active shooter, health-related natural disasters) and evacuation drills/plans, lock-down procedures and scrutinize the aforementioned procedures regularly in response to plausible natural or man-made misadventure. Security is a Collective Responsibility Worshipper’s MUST be security conscious; try to know their members, recognize strange faces and report suspicious behavior to members of the security department. Routine Comprehensive Security Survey Periodic threat/risk and vulnerability assessments of the place of the facilities vis-à-vis location of the place of worship and crime demographic, identifying potential hazards, how secured the access or entry points are, fencing, untrimmed shrubs/trees, inventory of equipment among others. Recommendations must be put in place to mitigate such risks. Recent events demands that places of worship must re-think leaving their premises unlocked to such an extent that anybody can walk in and out. Internal Physical Security Best Practices For Places of Worship Promptly report suspicious packages to police, and do not touch the suspicious package. Such packages could be an IED (Improvised Explosive Device). Church members must be enlightened never to touch any suspicious package. Such issues must also be addressed during emergency evacuation procedures/drills. An efficient access and traffic control mechanism must be activate to detect, prevent a would-be suicide bomber from gate-crashing with IEDs (Improvised Explosive Devices) or VIEDs (Vehicle Borne Explosive Devices). As much as possible, limit unauthorized access to Sunday school, childcare, business offices, cash count areas, instrument/equipment and media rooms. It may be expedient to establish a “safe room” for the spiritual head of the place of worship. External Physical Security Best Practices For Places of Worship Ramp up perimeter security with fencing or CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) principles. Use planter barriers and gates near entrances. Ensure gates and fences are in perfect working order. Ascertain that security lights at vehicle parking spaces are sufficient and in working order. Where feasible, install door/window alarms and motion-sensing lighting in areas that are dim, secluded. Regularly trim shrubs/bushes/trees around the place of worship especially near the doors and windows to eliminate hiding places and to enhance visibility. Religious centers will do well to establish good relationships with their neighbors and neighborhood watch associations. Thanks to the proliferation and affordability of security gadgets, financially established places of worship are encouraged to invest in some of these devices. For instance, an efficient CCTV Camera, metal or bomb detector will respectively help monitor the premises in real time, protect against intrusions, and concealed weapons, IEDs or VBIEDs. Please ensure whatever security gadgets you want to buy are tested prior to purchasing them to ascertain they work according to specification. In buying a metal or bomb detector, ensure it is easy and safe to use. For CCTV Cameras, go for high-end security cameras with night vision capability, motion detection capability, consider storage capacity and ability to save videos/pictures externally, weather resistant, high definition (HD) capability (though consumes more storage space), can discriminate objects at farther distances (say 75-100 feet), wide angle of coverage, among others. Note that wireless cameras slow down internet connections. What To Do In An Active-Shooter Situation When an Active Shooter is in your vicinity, you must be prepared both mentally and physically to deal with the situation. There are no one-size-fits-all answers to an active shooter security incident but knowing what to do or what action to take will definitely save lives. Here are some recommended steps to take following an active shooter attack: RUN HIDE FIGHT                4. WHEN LAW OFFICIALS ARRIVE Remain calm and follow instructions Raise hands and keep hands visible at all times Avoid quick movements toward officers Do not ask questions when evacuating INFORMATION TO PROVIDE TO EMERGENCY OPERATORS OR FIRST RESPONDERS Location of the active shooter. Number of shooters. Physical description of shooters. Number and type of weapons shooter has. Number of potential victims at location. Conclusion Prepare your mind! An Active Shooter would rather deal with an unaware, careless group of people/ persons than an aware one. Preparing yourself mentally will assist the you in preventing and defusing a situation before deadly force becomes necessary. Below are Color-Code Systems for Mental Conditioning that trains you towards a

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